Accès gratuit
Histoire Epistémologie Langage
Volume 39, Numéro 2, 2017
La grammaire sanskrite étendue
Page(s) 103 - 127
Publié en ligne 18 avril 2018
  • Beschi 1806. English translation of Beschi 1738 [ms. 1728]. See Horst, 1806. [Google Scholar]
  • ― 1813. Republication of Beschi 1738, by the college at Fort St George. [I have not seen this book. My statement is based on Mahon (1848, p. vi)]. [Google Scholar]
  • ― 1843. Grammatica Latino-Tamulica, in qua de Vulgari Tamulicæ Linguæ Idiomate கெந்கமிழ் [KOṬUNTAMIḺ] dicto fusius tractatur. Auctore P. Constantio-Josepho Beschio, Societatis JESU, InRegione Madurensi, Apud Indos Orientales, Missionario. NOVA EDITIO, cum notis, et compendio grammaticæ de elegantiori dialecto கெந்கமிழ் [CENTAMIḺ] dicta, ab uno missionario apostolico congregationis missionum ad exteros. PUDUCHERII, e typographio missionarium apostolicorum dictæ congregationis. [Google Scholar]
  • ― 1848. English translation of Beschi 1738. See Mahon, 1848. [Google Scholar]
  • Brentjes, Burchard & Gallus, Karl, 1985. Grammatica Damulica von Bartholomaeus Ziegenbalg, Halle 1716, Herausgegeben von ---, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg Wissenschaftliche Beiträge 1985/44 (I 32), Halle (Saale) 1985. [Google Scholar]
  • Henriques, Arte da Lingua Malabar. See Vermeer, 1982 and See Hein Rajam, 2013. [Google Scholar]
  • James, Gregory, 2000. Col-poruḷ. A History of Tamil Dictionaries, Cre-A, Chennai. [Google Scholar]
  • ― 2009. “Aspects of the structure of entries in the earliest missionary dictionary of Tamil”, pp. 273-301, Zwartjes, O. and Arzápalo, R. & T. Smith-Stark, T. (eds), Amsterdam. [Google Scholar]
  • Meillet, Antoine, ( 1928 1, 19333), 1976 (réimpression). Esquisse d'une Histoire de la langue latine, Editions Klincksieck, Paris. [Google Scholar]
  • Muru, Cristina, Muru, Cristina, 2014a. “Review of Hein & Rajam [2013]”, Histoire Épistémologie Langage 36/2, p. 184-188. [Google Scholar]
  • ― 2014b. “Gaspar de Aguilar: A Banished Genius”, in Amaladass, A. and Zupanov, I. G. (Ed.), Intercultural Encounter and the Jesuit Mission in South Asia (16th-18th Centuries), Asian Trading Corporation, Bangalore. [Google Scholar]
  • Murdoch, John, 1968 [1865]. Classified Catalogue of Tamil Printed Books, with introductory notices, (Reprinted with a number of Appendices and Supplement), Tamil Development and Research Council, Government of Tamil Nadu, Chennai [Original edition was printed in 1865 by The Christian Vernacular Education Society, Vepery, Madras. Murdoch [1865, p. xxxiv] wrongly supposes that Beschi's Grammatica Latino-Tamulica was printed in 1739, which is in fact the date when Walther's Observationes were printed and joined to Beschi's grammar as an Appendix. That initiative made Beschi “very unhappy”, according to Jeyaraj (2010: 165).]. [Google Scholar]
  • Ziegenbalg, 1985. see Brentjes & Gallus 1985. [Google Scholar]
  • ― 2010. see Jeyaraj 2010. [Google Scholar]
  • Auroux, Sylvain, 1994. La révolution technologique de la grammatisation, Liège, Mardaga. [Google Scholar]
  • Beschi, 1738 [ms. 1728]. Grammatica Latino-Tamulica, ubi de Vulgari Tamulicæ Linguæ Idiomate கொடுநகமிழ [KOṬUNTAMIḺ] dicto, ad Uſum Missionariorum Soc. Iesu. Auctore P. Constantio Iosepho Beschio, Ejuſdem Societ. In Regno Madurenſi Missionario. A.D. MDCCXXVIII. Trangambariæ, Typis Miſſionis Danicæ, MDCCXXXIIX. [Google Scholar]
  • Chevillard, Jean-Luc, 2015. “The challenge of bi-directional translation as experienced by the first European missionary grammarians and lexicographers of Tamil”, Aussant, Émilie (ed.), La Traduction dans l'Histoire des Idées Linguistiques, Préface de Sylvain Auroux, Librairie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner, Paris, p. 111-130. [Google Scholar]
  • Hein, Jeanne (†) and V.S. Rajam, 2013. The Earliest Missionary Grammar of Tamil. Fr. Henriques' Arte da Lingua Malabar: Translation, History and Analysis. Harvard Oriental Series (v. 76), Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England. [Google Scholar]
  • Horst, Christopher Henry (translator), 1806 1 (18312). A Grammar of the Common Dialect of the Tamulian Language, Called Koṭuntamil̲, composed by R.F. Const. Joseph Beschi, Jesuit Missionary, after a study of Thirty years, translated by ---, Vepery Mission Press. [(I have not seen the 1806 (First) edition of this book (Vepery Mission Press) but it is referenced in Google Books (, although NOT currently accessible for reading, and some copies are known to exist. Christoph Heinrich Horst [1761-1810] (also known as Christopher Henry Horst) was born in Ratzeburg (Germany), came to India in 1787 and died in Thanjavur. The second edition of his translation of Beschi's grammar was printed by the Christian Knowledge Society, according to Murdoch (1865, p. xxxiv-xxxv]. A third edition was considered, but Mahon, who should have been in charge of revising Horst translation, was not at all satisfied with it and decided to make his own fresh translation, which came out in 1848 (see THIS bibliography)]. [Google Scholar]
  • Jeyaraj, Daniel, 2010. Tamil Language for Europeans: Ziegenbalg's Grammatica Damulica (1716). Translated from Latin and Tamil. Annotated and Commented by ---. Harrassowitz Verlag. Wiesbaden. [Google Scholar]
  • Lallot Jean, Rosier-Catach Irène, 2005. « Le devenir d'un merveilleux outil », Histoire Épistémologie Langage 27/1, p. 7–10. [Google Scholar]
  • Mahon, George Wiliam, 1848. A Grammar of the common dialect of the Tamul Language, called கொடுந்கமிழ் [KOṬUNTAMIḺ], composed for the use of the Missionaries of the Society of Jesus, by Constantius Joseph Beschi, Missionary of the said Society in the district of Madura, Translated from the original Latin by −-A.M., Garrison Chaplain, Fort St. George, Madras, and late fellow of Pembroke College, Oxford. Madras.Madras. Printed by Reuben Twigg, at the Christian Knowledge Society's Press, Vepery. [Google Scholar]
  • MTL : Madras Tamil Lexicon ( 1982 [reprint]). Tamil Lexicon, Published under the authority of the University of Madras, 6 volumes and 1 supplement [original publication date: 1924-1939]. [Google Scholar]
  • Piṅkalam: Piṅkalantai eṉṉum Piṅkala Nikaṇṭu, 1968. Kaḻaka Veḷiyīṭu 1315. [Google Scholar]
  • Proença, Antaõ de, 1679. See Thani Nayagam, 1966. [Google Scholar]
  • Rhenius C.T.E., 1836. A Grammar of the Tamil Language, Madras, Printed at the Church Mission Press. [Google Scholar]
  • Thani Nayagam, Xavier S., 1966. Antaõ de Proença's Tamil-Portuguese Dictionary A.D. 1679, Prepared for Publication by ---, Department of Indian Studies, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Sale Agents: E.J. Brill, Leiden (Netherlands. [Google Scholar]
  • Vermeer, Hans J., 1982. The first European Tamil Grammar, A Critical edition by --, English version by Angelika Morath, Julius Groos Verlag, Heidelberg. [Google Scholar]
  • Walther, 1739. Observationes Grammaticae, quibus Linguae Tamulicae idioma Vulgare, in usum operariorum in Messe Domini inter Gentes Vulgo Malabares Dictas, Illustratur a Christophoro Theodosio Walthero, Missionario Danico, Trangambariae, Typis Miſſionis Regiæ, MDCCXXXIX. (The book is freely available on Google books at: “”.). [Google Scholar]
  • Ziegenbalg, Bartholomaeus, 1716. Grammatical Damulica,/ quae/ per varia paradigmata, regulas & necessarium vocabulorum apparatum,/ viam brevissimam/ monstrat,/ qua/ lingua damulica/ seu malabarica, quae inter Indos Orientales in/ usu est, & hucusque in Europa incognita fuit,/ facile disci possit :/ in/ usum eorum/ qui hoc tempore gentes illas ab idolatria ad cultum veri/ Dei salutemque aeternam Evangelio Christi per-/ducere cupiunt :/ In itinere Europaeo, seu in nave Danica,/ concinnata/ a/ Bartholomaeo Ziegenbalg,/ Serenissimi Regis Daniae Missionario inter Indos Orientales, & eccle-/siae ex Indis collectae Praeposito./ Halae Saxonum/ Litteris & impensis Orphanotrophei M D CC XVI. [Google Scholar]
  • Zwartjes, O. and Arzápalo, R. & T. Smith-Stark, T. (Eds), 2009. Missionary linguistics IV: Lexicography. Selected papers from the Fifth International Conference on Missionary Linguistics, Mérida, Yucatán, 14-17 March 2007. Studies in the History of the Language Sciences, 114, John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam. [Google Scholar]